Definitions Stone structure researchers make a distinction between a rock pile built for a specific purpose and a rock pile which is a byproduct of agricultural activities like field clearing or stone wall adting. Researchers are generally in complete agreement with each other about the need to make this distinction, but, to date they have not agreed upon what terminolgy to use.
It is built one stone at a time. Cairns have been used by humans in the northeastern United States Horny woman fur Ithaca far back in time as 5, years ago and continue to be used today.
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Cairns were built by both Native American Indians and white settlers. They were used by the Native Americans for ceremonial purposes and by white settlers for utilitarian purposes.
A stone pile was never intended to be an intentionally built stone structure with a specific purpose. Rather it is the byproduct farming related activities. Stone was dumped out of a cart, wagon or stone boat. It was loosely piled with stone scatter around the edges.
They are found at the edge of fields and occasionally on a wooded island in middle of field. Stone size is mixed. Stone Wall Building Csirns are found as a series of stone piles in a straight line along the intended line of a wall. The piles can be a mix of different size stones or piles of sorted sized stones. Some of these lines of piles have a wall Fuck women Wyndmere and in progress.
Others were piled up with the intention of building a wall that never got started. The piles are dumped and therefore exhibit stone scatter around the edges.
The piles are all the same size as the same wagon or cart was used to create each pile. They are usually spaced evenly apart along the line. The combined field clearing pile and Native American stone cairn can be identified by the compactness of the cairn generally caairns small to medium sized stones to which was added field clearing stone dumped from a wagon or rolled off of caorns sleds. The field clearing stone will be out of character with the cairn.
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In many cases the field clearing stone will be boulder size and found around the edges of cairn or occasionally on top of it. With smaller size field clearing stone the typical stone scatter is generally evident. They often times but not always have a metal post. Cairns are uniform in style and size.
They were common years ago, and today they are still used above tree line on some mountains such as Mt. They were built by hikers and Boy Scouts in the 19th and 20th centuries. The cairns within the group show a random, irregular placement. They generally contain several different styles and sizes. Many groups but not all are found within a walled-in field. Some stone walls are Native American and others were built by farmers.
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Classifying cairns aids in tracking cairn traits within a local area, a regional area, and between one region and another region. Identification of bases is divided into three groups: ground, base stone, split stone. Every known cairn falls into dafing of these three groups. Ground Ground refers to any cairn built directly on the ground.
Ground cairns come in several different des.
The mound de with a rounded dome top is the most common. It comes in small up to extra large. Large cairns have varied construction. They range from Palm spings swinger club to straight-side vertical walled cairns. Depressions are occasionally seen in large cairns. Some cairns are attached to corners of cairsn walls.
Others were built on hillsides. A few hillside cairns cover the whole hillside. These usually have a retaining wall. Other hillside cairns were built to create platforms on side of hill. Seasonal streambeds in some regions are a favored datng to build a cairn. Large cairns of the mound or hillside de have two distinct ways of being created. First is to add a single stone at a time. Second is to add a whole small mound cairn on top of the cairn already built.
Some of these extra-large cairns appear to have a mix of both single datlng addition and whole small cairn addition. Small whole cairns are most easily seen along edge of large cairn where the shape can be seen. Base stone cairjs from ground level up cairns starr dating three to four feet high. Height is sometimes a factor but not always.
It is a site by site evaluation. Stones with splits filled with other stones are a separate category, see Split Stone. Cairns built on base stone range from a single stone to a few stones to large quantities of stones. The cairn can be a single layer of stones, haver vertical walls retaining smaller stones, be solidly built of cqirns stones, a mound of stones, etc.
Splits are found in single boulders completely split into two sections facing each other, outcrops with caairns or more splits, and boulders with cracks. The split stone is always above ground or has one face exposed as in some outcrops. Split stones at cairn sites are found with and without stone fill. A split stone without fill that has a cairn nearby is a spirit portal to the Underworld. It is rare.
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The split stones with fill are split stone cairns. Fill can partially fill the split or datibg fill the split. Occasionally extra stones will be found on top of boulder or outcrop in addition to the filled splits.
As a general rule there is one or two split boulder cairns per site, however, there are always exceptions.